Posted by Mark Halper

Waving off worries. Xu Hongjie, director of the Thorium Molten Salt Reactor Center, says an expanding   staff of young scientists gives the project a “bright future.”

SHANGHAI – China has pushed back the intended completion date for its test thorium molten salt reactor, from 2017 to 2020, the head of the project indicated here today.

In a presentation at the Thorium Energy Conference 2012, Xu Hongjie, director of the TMSR Center at the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), showed a slide stating a 2020 completion date for the 2-megawatt reactor.

That’s three years later than the 2017 set out by CAS’ Dr. Chen Kun last August in his TMSR presentation to a group of academics at the University of California Berkeley.

According to Dr. Xu’s slide today, CAS has also pushed back the target date for a 2-megawatt molten salt cooled, solid fuel thorium pebble bed reactor, from the original 2015 to 2017 – although Xu seemed to say 2015 in his talk.

Whether intentional or not, Dr. Xu did not voice any date for the TMSR. The slide accompanying his talk clearly shows 2020.

During an impromptu chat afterwards, Dr. Xu would not characterize the new date as a delay. Nor did he explain in detail why CAS has pushed back the timeline.

“You need a margin,” Dr. Xu told me. “Maybe something happens.”

Sliding back. Dr. Xu’s slide shows completion dates of 2017 and 2020, respectively, for the thorium       pebble bed and thorium liquid molten salt reactors – 2 and 3 years later that previously indicated.

China approved the project in Jan. 2011. That’s practically “yesterday” in traditional nuclear development time, so the country’s original targets of 2015 and 2017 struck some people as over ambitious.

But given China’s reputation for getting things done, others found the original timescale to be plausible.

The new timescale seems to reflect the significant design challenges that have been evident over the first two days of the conference, where experts from China and around the world have described various hurdles to the thorium molten salt reactor. Among them:

  • Developing materials or processes that can withstand corrosive salts, temperatures much higher than conventional nuclear, and radiation.
  • Assuring that the failsafe “freeze plug” works and thus allows TMSRs to live up to the claim that they are “meltdown proof.” In a TMSR, a plug melts when the reactor overheats, allowing the liquid fuel to drain into a safe tank.
  • Developing processes for the safe removal of actinides. Although TMSRs do not leave behind the longer living wastes of conventional uranium reactors, they still produce toxic elements, albeit with a shorter lifespan.

CAS, through its Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP) division, could be well equipped to tackle these issues.


Xu hopes to more than double his TMSR staff from 334 to 750 by 2015, hiring specialists in reactor physics, molten salts, materials, radioactivity and safety – from abroad as well as domestically.

Xu also said that the project’s youthfulness will help. Over 80 percent of its staff is under 39 years old – half are between 20 and 29 – and he is actively recruiting young scientists.

“Our team is very young, so we will be having a bright future,” he said.

In August, Dr. Chun said the test TMSR project had a $350 million budget

CAS/SINAP plans to follow its test 2-megawatt reactor with a 10-megawatt demonstrator and a 100-megawatt pilot.

Thorium molten salt reactors in principle run more efficiently than conventional reactors, produce less dangerous waste, reduce the weapons proliferation risk and eliminate the possibility of a meltdown.

China plans to use TMSRs not only to generate clean electricity, but also as a carbon-free heat source for industrial processes, the president of CAS’ Shanghai branch, Jiang Mianheng, said at the conference yesterday.

Photos by Mark Halper


  1. Raul Parolari says:

    >”..the significant design challenges, among them: Developing processes for the safe removal of actinides..”

    I think that the Actinides/Transuranics are not be removed from the fuel salt, at least in the US Flibe-Energy version; it is the Fission Products that are removed.
    That’s essential for the waste disposal, because the waste stream of the LFTR will then have a life of only 350 years (instead of dozens of thousands).

    I wonder if that is a mistake in the article, or if there is a difference (and an important one) between the Chinese MSR and the US LFTR.

  2. Martin Kral says:

    Not only did the presentation print a delay of half a week in Mark’s timelines, Dr Lu also stated that they are doubling the size of the team. For me, that is a serious committment and they will get the job done long before the rest of the world. I do not understand why our National Labs are not funded for this R&D. It started there, so we should finish the job. Our Congress would rather fund waste management instead. Politician are more complicated than actinides. Sorry, sometimes I just have to throw up my arms.

  3. ROBERTM says:

    The Chinese will do what is best for china. Thorium is the future of world energy. Thorium is clean, safe, and above all cheap as sand.

    China is a major economy with decade long leadership, and extremely hard working and skilled people. I believe china will take advantage of thorium, and export it to the entire world.

    As an American, I am happy that someone will take advantage of thorium’s clean, safe, cheap energy. China again will be first to eat the crab.

  4. Uncle B says:

    See: ‎Kun Chen from Chinese Academy of Sciences on China Thorium
    Remember: They hardly tell the west everything they know!

  5. Hemmo says:

    Another drive to realize this project as soon as possible is the enourmous availability of Thorium as a waste product from the every growing rare-earth mining industry in China.

  6. Mike Dawson says:

    Same situation here in the UK. It seems politicians have influence from existing industry fearing losing revenue from existing energy products. Existing Uranium suppliers / Oil and Gas I bet they have a lot to do with why funding for this new safe lower cost energy is being stifled.
    Good on the Chinese go do it and sell it to the world ..make a profit and show the Western world how stupid we all really are by not pushing our politicians to investigate this seriously.
    I noticed that Cambridge University is investigating Thorium however it seems they are looking at past tech High Pressure I mean stupid waste of time and resources playing fiddle again to existing High pressure tech. We should be investigating LFTR full stop.
    Sometimes you need someone to JFDI and well done China I applaud you.

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