Posts Tagged climate

Being pro-nuclear does not undermine climate and energy goals

Posted by Suzanna Hinson on August 26th, 2016

By Stephen Tindale and Suzanna Hinson

“EU member states with pro-nuclear policies risk undermining Europe’s 2020 Strategy on climate and energy goals, an academic study has found.”

Maxine Perella: “Pro-nuclear EU countries ‘slower to tackle GHGs or boost renewables’ – study.” ENDS Europe, 24 August 2016

The study referred to is “Nuclear energy and path dependence in Europe’s ‘Energy union’: coherence or continued divergence?” by Andrew Lawrence, Benjamin Sovacool and Andrew Stirling, from the University of Sussex and the Vienna School of International Relations.[1]

The authors consider data from all European countries. They divide them into three main categories: always anti-nuclear (13 countries); now anti-nuclear (7); pro-nuclear (8). The headline conclusions are that:

– The always-anti countries have reduced their emissions by an average of 6% since 2005, and had increased renewable energy sources to 26%.

– The now-anti countries reduced emissions on average by 11% while expanding renewables to 19%.

– In pro-nuclear countries, greenhouse gas emissions have increased since 2005 by an average of 3%, and only 16% of energy is from renewables.

– On the basis of these figures, the authors conclude:”[The] intensities of national commitment to nuclear power tend to be inversely related to degrees of success in achieving EU climate policy goals.”

The study was published in the journal Climate Policy, so will have been peer reviewed. It deserves to be taken seriously – and has already been widely discussed. However, the authors’ conclusions are, in our view, based on two significant mistakes:

– The categories of pro- and anti-nuclear are too broad and do not compare like with like;

– Reduction of greenhouse gases and promotion of renewable energy are presented together as a single objective. They are not.

The authors group countries together into always anti-nuclear, now anti-nuclear and pro-nuclear. To be in the ‘now anti-‘ category, a country’s government must have a policy to decommission existing nuclear power stations and not allow replacements. Germany clearly belongs in this category. Does Sweden, which the authors also place there? In 1980 Swedes voted in a referendum to phase out nuclear power, though no timetable was set. Since then Swedish policy on nuclear has been, to use the diplomatic word used by the World Nuclear Association, “ambivalent”.[2] In 2010, at the behest of a centre-right government, the Swedish parliament lifted the ban on new nuclear construction. In 2014 the Green Party entered a centre-left coalition, so new nuclear was off the political agenda for a while. But on 10 June this year (so shortly after the publication of the Climate Policy article) the government lifted its moratorium on nuclear new build, and also reduced the tax on nuclear. Sweden is not, therefore, an anti-nuclear country.

The countries which the authors do place in their pro-nuclear category are Finland, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and the UK: countries with very different economic and political circumstances. We do not believe that it makes analytical sense to compare western European countries – established democracies with strong economies – with ex-communist central and eastern European ones. And the existing energy mix is also a determining factor in a country’s attitude to climate action. The reason the Polish government opposes strong greenhouse gas reduction targets is not because it wants to build a nuclear power station; it is because Polish society and economy are currently so dependent on coal.

If one narrows the category to western European countries, how do pro-and anti-nuclear countries compare? In terms of greenhouse gas reductions since 2005, the figures given in the Climate Policy article are:

Country Authors’ category Greenhouse gas reduction since 2005
Denmark Always anti -20%
Ireland Always anti -20%
Austria Always anti -16%
Finland Pro -16%
Netherlands Now anti -16%
Belgium Now anti -15%
France Pro -14%
Germany Now anti -14%
UK Pro -14%
Italy Always anti -13%
Spain Now anti -10%
Sweden Now anti -10%

 

Denmark and Ireland, the countries that have reduced emissions most since 2005, have always been anti-nuclear. But two examples do not constitute a proven link. Beyond these two, the figures do not establish correlation, let alone causation. In joint second on -16% are one country from each of the three categories. Anti-nuclear Germany and pro-nuclear Britain and France have each reduced emissions by 14% since 2005.

Performance on renewable energy

The authors then consider how well countries are performing on renewable energy. They mention the drawbacks of some renewable energy technologies, including large hydro and bioenergy, but nevertheless present single figures, covering all renewables, for each country. Bioenergy and nuclear can be used anywhere, but other renewables, especially hydro, are geographically dependent.

The figures for western European countries are given below. Again, there is no correlation between attitude to nuclear and performance on renewables.

Country Category Percentage of energy from renewables (2013)
Sweden Now anti (according to authors) 52%
Finland Pro 37%
Austria Always anti 33%
Denmark Always anti 27%
France Pro 14%
Germany Now anti 12.5%
UK Pro 5%
Netherlands Now anti 4.5%

 

Sweden get about 40% of its electricity from hydro; Finland 18%. Finland got 16% of electricity from bioenergy in 2013, Sweden 6%. Both countries also use bioenergy extensively for heating.[3] They have strong criteria for minimising the biodiversity impact of biomass, but not for assessing the carbon footprint. EU rules on the carbon footprint of bioenergy apply only to biofuels, not to biomass. Bioenergy is necessary, particularly for heating and for transport. But not all bioenergy expansion is desirable. Being renewable is not the same as being good for the climate. Similarly, large-scale hydro, has some severe consequences to habitats, erosion and hydrology meaning though it is good for the climate, it is not necessarily good for the environment.

Are renewables better than nuclear?

Does it matter whether greenhouse gas reductions are achieved through expansion of renewables, or through other measures? It does not matter to the global climate. In our view, the scale of the climate crisis is such that we need rapidly to move beyond arguments about which low-carbon technology to support and accepted that all are required. (Our next report will be on this issue.) But the way in which emissions are reduced appears to matter to the Climate Policy authors. Professor Andy Stirling, said about his report: “By suppressing better ways to meet climate goals, evidence suggests entrenched commitments to nuclear power may actually be counterproductive.”[4]

Academics should always define their terms. So we have a question for Professor Sterling: better in what sense?

 

[1] http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14693062.2016.1179616

[2] http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/country-profiles/countries-o-s/sweden.aspx

[3] https://www.iea.org/countries/membercountries/

[4] http://www.sussex.ac.uk/broadcast/read/36547

Nuclear gaining acceptance as a clean energy source

Posted by Suzanna Hinson on March 3rd, 2016

Those in the scientific and industrial community have long accepted the fact that nuclear power produces zero-carbon energy once constructed. Nuclear has similar life-cycle greenhouse emissions to wind and has a considerably lower carbon footprint than solar does, even when mining and waste disposal are included.

Many politicians have taken much longer to accept this with nuclear more often being grouped with fossil fuels than with renewable energies. But now nuclear is starting to get the climate recognition it deserves. The State of New York Public Service Commission has declared that the state must include nuclear in its Clean Energy Standard portfolio. This represents a major step forward and hopefully the start of greater acceptance of nuclear power as a future friendly, sustainable form of energy. It is however, just a start.

As the Paris conference highlighted, nuclear is still struggling. Energy for Humanity reported over the Paris COP that since 2001, nuclear energy has been explicitly excluded from climate mitigation strategies. This includes a ban on nuclear projects receiving financial assistance from the climate pact’s development mechanisms and significantly hinders both acceptance and deployment of nuclear.

Increasingly, high profile climate experts are speaking out to combat this stigma and support nuclear. At the Paris Climate Conference in December, Dr Kenneth Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution for Science said “the climate doesn’t care whether the electricity comes from a wind turbine or a nuclear reactor. The climate just cares about carbon”. Dr James Hansen, the former NASA scientist who brought climate change to the attention of the US government in the 1980s, argued, “it is wrong to pit renewables against nuclear power. We need all hands on deck.”

It must be hoped that New York is but the first step towards greater global acceptance of nuclear’s carbon credentials and that policy makers can revise their renewables-only pathways in favour of an ‘all of the above’ plan; reflecting the urgency and scale of today’s energy, environmental and climate challenges.

 

http://www.world-nuclear-news.org/NP-New-York-includes-nuclear-in-clean-energy-portfolio-2201167.html

James Hansen ArrestDC Tarsandsaction Wiki

James Hansen wants to arrest climate change by replacing fossil fuels with nuclear power. Above, a policeman handcuffs him outside the White House during a 2011 demonstration against TransCanada’s Keystone oil pipeline.

A group of four well-known climate scientists created a stir earlier this week with an open letter imploring environmentalists to back nuclear power as a low carbon energy source that can stave off the havoc of climate change.

With signatories including James Hansen, the Columbia University professor and longtime campaigner in the global warming fight,  the missive could put nuclear power firmly into the consciousness of this year’s United Nations Climate Change Conference kicking off in Warsaw on Nov. 11.

But what much of the general press missed in reporting on the clarion call was that the scientists were not simply advocating nuclear. They were pressing for  a move away from conventional nuclear technology – the uranium fueled, water cooled reactors of the last 50+ years – and toward alternative reactor types, such as those we write about here at Weinberg.

“We understand that today’s nuclear plants are far from perfect,” the letter stated. “Fortunately, passive safety systems and other advances can make new plants much safer. And modern nuclear technology can reduce proliferation risks and solve the waste disposal problem by burning current waste and using fuel more efficiently. Innovation and economies of scale can make new power plants even cheaper than existing plants.”

In addition to Hansen, who recently retired from over 30 years as head of NASA’s Goddard Institute of Space Studies, the authors included senior scientist Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution for Science at Stanford University, atmospheric scientist Kerry Emanuel from MIT, and climate scientist Tom Wigley from Australia’s University of Adelaide.

REACTOR OPTIONS

For Hansen, alternative nuclear technology would include integral fast reactors (IFR) such as the PRISM reactor from GE-Hitachi which can burn plutonium and thus make use of existing nuclear “waste.” It can also breed fuel. Last year, Hansen, along with entrepreneur Richard Branson and GEH engineer Eric Loewen, wrote to U.S. President Barrack Obama encouraging support of IFRs (Loewen signed the letter in his then capacity as president of the American Nuclear Society).

Several other alternative reactor designs also augur improvement in safety, cost, efficiency, waste and weapons proliferation risks.

Those include molten salt reactors (MSRs), which deploy liquid fuel and which can operate safely at high temperatures and thus improve generating efficiencies and also serve as a clean heat source for high temperature industry processes that today rely on CO2-intense fossil fuels. MSRs also operate at atmospheric pressures rather than at potentially dangerous high pressure, and have a fail safe engineering that prevents meltdowns and and that allows fuel to drain harmlessly into a tank if necessary. They offer a number of other advantages, such as reduced waste and a potential to breed fuel.

Companies and countries developing MSRs include  China, Canada’s Terrestrial Energy, Japan’s Thorium Tech Solution, and Transatomic Power and Flibe Energy from the U.S., among others.

Other alternatives include another type of high temperature reactor called a “pebble bed reactor,” small modular reactors (which crosses many reactor types), and fusion.

THORIUM TOO

The alternative reactor types – as well as conventional reactors – could also tap thorium fuel rather than uranium. Proponents of thorium point out that it is more plentiful than uranium, that it has a higher energy content,  and that it can reduce waste and proliferation risk, among other benefits. Thor Energy in Norway is currently conducting thorium tests in a conventional reactor. Scientists at the University of Cambridge and elsewhere believe that thorium could potentially be re-used over and over again in modified conventional reactors.

As I reported here recently from the Thorium Energy Conference 2013 in Geneva, thorium supporters include Nobel Prize winning physicist Carlo Rubbia and former chief UN weapons inspector Hans Blix. Conventional French nuclear giant Areva last week publicly stated that is investigating thorium possibilities.

This week’s letter by Hansen and his fellow climate scientist did not mention the alternative technologies by name, but issued a call “for the development and deployment of advanced nuclear energy.”

It said that “renewable” energy technologies such as wind and solar simply won’t be enough to avoid further serious consequences from global warming.

NUCLEAR ENVIRONMENTALISTS

Many formerly anti-nuclear environmentalists have crossed over into the pro-nuclear camp, a theme conveyed in the feature length documentary film Pandora’s Promise. This week’s letter hopes to broaden that trend.

“We appreciate your organization’s concern about global warming, and your advocacy of renewable energy. But continued opposition to nuclear power threatens humanity’s ability to avoid dangerous climate change,” it said.

It further noted that, “Renewables like wind and solar and biomass will certainly play roles in a future energy economy, but those energy sources cannot scale up fast enough to deliver cheap and reliable power at the scale the global economy requires. While it may be theoretically possible to stabilize the climate without nuclear power, in the real world there is no credible path to climate stabilization that does not include a substantial role for nuclear power.”

It’s no coincidence that Hansen et al published the letter in the run-up to the two-week UN conference, where policy makers from around the world will attempt to agree on action to slow the effects of climate change. Often, these annual UN confabs – such as the 2009 Copenhagen installment – are remembered more for what they did not accomplish than anything else. Let’s see if Warsaw 2013 can at least leave some sort of positive nuclear impression.

For a full copy of the letter click here.

Photo is from Tarsandsaction via Wikimedia

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